Wednesday, May 20, 2020
Pompey the Great (September 29, 106 BCEÃ¢â¬âSeptember 28, 48Ã BCE) was one of the main Roman military leaders and statesmen during the final decades of the Roman Republic. He made a political alliance with Julius Caesar, married his daughter, and then fought against him for control of the empire. A skilled warrior, Pompey became known as Pompey the Great. Fast Facts: Pompey the Great Known For: Pompey was a Roman military commander and statesman who was part of the First Triumvirate with Marcus Licinius Crassus and Julius Caesar.Also Known As: Pompey, Gnaeus Pompeius MagnusBorn: September 29, 106 BCE in Picenum, Roman RepublicDied: September 28, 48 BCE in Pelusium, EgyptSpouse(s): AntistiaÃ (m. 86-82 BCE), Aemilia ScauraÃ (m. 82-79 BCE), Mucia TertiaÃ (m. 79-61 BCE), JuliaÃ (m. 59-54 BCE), Cornelia MetellaÃ (m. 52-48 BCE)Children: Gnaeus Pompeius, Pompeia Magna, Sextus Pompeius Early Life Unlike Caesar, whose Roman heritage was long and illustrious, Pompey came from a non-Latin family in Picenum (in northern Italy), with money. His father,Ã Gnaeus Pompeius Strabo, was a member of the Roman Senate. At 23, following in his fathers footsteps, Pompey entered the political scene by raising troops to help Roman general Sulla liberate Rome from the Marians. Marius and Sulla had been at odds ever since Marius took credit for a victory in Africa that his subordinate Sulla had engineered. Their struggles led to many Roman deaths and unthinkable violations of Roman law, such as bringing an army into the city itself. Pompey was a Sullan and a supporter of the conservative Optimates. A novus homo, or new man, Marius was Julius Caesars uncle and a supporter of the populist group known as the Populares. Pompey fought Marius men in Sicily and Africa. For his bravery in battle, he was given the title Pompey the Great (Pompeius Magnus). Sertorian War and Third Mithridatic War Civil war continued in Rome when Quintus Sertorius, one of the Populares, launched an attack against the Sullans in the Western Roman Empire. Pompey was sent to assist the SullansÃ in the fighting, which lasted from 80 BCE to 72 BCE. Pompey was a skilled strategist; he used his forces to draw out the enemy and attack them when they least suspected it. In 71 BCE, he helped Roman leaders suppress the slave uprising led by Spartacus, and he later played a role in the defeat of the pirate menace. When he invaded the country of Pontus, in Asia Minor, in 66 BCE, Mithridates, who had long been a thorn in Romes side, fled to the Crimea where he arranged for his own death. This meant the Mithridatic wars were finally over; Pompey could take credit for another victory. On behalf of Rome, Pompey also took control of Syria in 64 BCEÃ¢â¬â¹ and captured Jerusalem. When he returned to Rome in 61 BCE, he held a triumphal celebration. The First Triumvirate Along with Marcus Licinius Crassus and Julius Caesar, Pompey formed what is known as the First Triumvirate, which became the dominating force in Roman politics. Together, these three rulers were able to seize power from some of the Optimates and resist the power of the Roman nobles in the Senate. Like Pompey, Caesar was a skilled and highly respected military leader; Crassus was the wealthiest man in the Roman Empire. The alliances between the three men, however, were personal, tenuous, and short-lived. Crassus was not happy that Pompey had taken credit for overcoming the Spartans, but with Caesar mediating, he agreed to the arrangement for political ends. When Pompeys wife Julia (Caesars daughter) died, one of the main links broke. Crassus, a less capable military leader than the other two, was killed in military action in Parthia. Civil War After the dissolution of the First Triumvirate, tensions began to escalate between Pompey and Caesar. Some Roman leaders, including those who had previously resisted the authority of Pompey and Caesar, decided to back Pompey in an election for consul, fearing that the failure to do so would create a power vacuum in Rome. Pompey then married Cornelia, the daughter of the Roman consul Metellus Scipio. For a time, Pompey controlled much of the Roman Empire while Caesar continued his campaigns abroad. In 51 BCE, Pompey made moves to relieve Caesar of his command. He promised to give up his own armies as well; however, some scholars claim that this was merely a ploy to hurt public opinion of Caesar, who no one expected would surrender his forces. Negotiations continued unsuccessfully for some time, with neither commander willing to make military concessions, and eventually the conflict turned into outright war. The Great Roman Civil WarÃ¢â¬âalso known as Caesars Civil WarÃ¢â¬âlasted four years, from 49 to 45 BCE. It came to an end with Caesars decisive victory at the Battle of Munda. Death Pompey and Caesar first faced each other as enemy commanders after Caesar, defying orders from Rome, crossed the Rubicon. Caesar was the victor of the battle at Pharsalus in Greece, where he was outnumbered by Pompeys forces. After the defeat, Pompey fled to Egypt, where he was killed and his head cut off so that it could be sent to Caesar. Legacy Even though he turned against Caesar, Pompey was widely admired by his countrymen for his role in the conquest of various territories. He was especially admired by the nobles, and statues of him were placed in Rome as a tribute to his military and political accomplishments. His image was printed on silver coins in 40 BCE. Pompey has been depicted in a number of films and television series, including Julius Caesar, Rome, Ancient Rome: The Rise and Fall of an Empire, and Spartacus: War of the Damned. Sources Fields, Nic.Ã Warlords of Republican Rome: Caesar versus Pompey. Casemate, 2010.Gillespie, William Ernest.Ã Caesar, Cicero and Pompey: the Roman Civil War. 1963.Morrell, Kit.Ã Pompey, Cato, and the Governance of the Roman Empire. Oxford University Press, 2017.Seager, Robin.Ã Pompey, a Political Biography. University of California Press, 1979.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
1.0 Introduction Mount Everest, as the highest mountain in the world, is famous for the enormous challenge of reaching its summit. This analytic essay is an analysis of the management involved with the Everest Simulation created by Harvard Business School. During this 3hour simulation I was the team doctor and achieved all ten of the possible ten points available, therefore 100% of goals were achieved. This score is related to the goals I accomplish as an individual and as a team. I enjoyed the simulation and expanded upon my knowledge as it taught a profound understanding of team dynamics, the capability to accept change, a stronger ability to analyse available information and create effective communication. Our team as a whole obtained 94% of our goals. 2.0 Leadership 2.1 Issue Our teamÃ¢â¬â¢s major goal when completing this simulation was to ensure we scored as many points as possible not only individually but collectively. The enticement to get every member to the summit was alluring; however as a team we decided it was better to stop and contemplate each stage in order to maximise points. As the simulation was a highly structured task this made the concept of an individual leading and managing the team ultimately redundant. Each group member contributed towards being team leader as the group worked cooperatively and cohesively throughout. This issue corresponds to the theory of leadership and in particular substitutes for leadership. A team working as one making informedShow MoreRelatedEverest Report Mgmt10013908 Words Ã |Ã 16 PagesMGMT1001: Everest Report Andrew Lau A critical and reflective self-evaluation of my experiences during the Everest team simulation in the contexts of Ã¢â¬Ëattitudes, personalities amp; perceptionsÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Ëpower amp; conflictÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëgroups amp; teamsÃ¢â¬â¢. Executive Summary The Everest simulation is a team simulation designed to emulate real life group processes and the diverse range of intergroup interactions this entails. Developed by Harvard Business School, participants are grouped into teams ofRead MoreEverest Is A Simulation Game Created By A Collaboration Between Forio Business Simulations And Harvard Business School3479 Words Ã |Ã 14 PagesÃ¢â¬Æ' 1. Executive Summary Everest, is a simulation game created by a collaboration between Forio Business Simulations and Harvard Business School, in which the objective is to virtually climb to the top of the world, Mount Everest. The gruelling virtual climb is meant to reflect real life problems of climbing a mountain, such as oxygen scarcity, volatile health conditions, and unpredictable weather. One of the main features of the climb however is the students who are thrown randomly in groups ofRead MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words Ã |Ã 1617 Pagesis an online assessment and preparation solution for courses in Principles of Management, Human Resources, Strategy, and Organizational Behavior that helps you actively study and prepare material for class. Chapter-by-chapter activities, including built-in pretests and posttests, focus on what you need to learn and to review in order to succeed. Visit www.mymanagementlab.com to learn more. DEVELOPING MANAGEMENT SKILLS EIGHTH EDITION David A. Whetten BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY Kim S.Read MoreProject Mgmt296381 Words Ã |Ã 1186 PagesCross Reference of Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) Concepts to Text Topics Chapter 1 Modern Project Management Chapter 8 Scheduling resources and cost 1.2 Project defined 1.3 Project management defined 1.4 Projects and programs (.2) 2.1 The project life cycle (.2.3) App. G.1 The project manager App. G.7 Political and social environments F.1 Integration of project management processes [3.1] 6.5.2 Setting a schedule baseline [8.1.4] 22.214.171.124 Setting a resource schedule 126.96.36.199 Resource
Question: Discuss about the Leading Case of Brunninghausen v Glavanics. Answer: In the leading case of Brunninghausen v Glavanics the appellant was the only active director and also majority shareholder. In the same company the respondent was the sleeping director and shareholder. The relations between the two directors, who are parties to the present case, became sour and both parties lost trust into each other. The respondent retained his position of the director as a formality as a result he was not given any information regarding the company's affairs. The parties started negotiating to resolve the differences between them. The appellant, during the negotiation proceedings, received a proposal from a third party to purchase the assets of the company. The appellant negotiated with the party without giving information to the respondent. On the other side, the respondent got ready to sell his shares to the appellant at a rate which was much below the same rate which was paid by the party purchasing the company. The judge at the trial court held that the appella nt had a fiduciary duty being a director towards the respondent being a shareholder. The judge also held that the appellant committed breach of his duty by not disclosing the facts of the other negotiation that he had with the third party. The Judge ordered to conduct an inquiry in order to determine the amount of compensation that is to be paid and as a final award ordered compensation to the respondent (Brunninghausen v Glavanics (1999) 199 NSWCA). As per the law of corporations a shareholder can sue the directors on behalf of the company in case of breach of obligations (Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) s 236). The court in this case observed that the omission to recognize the presence of a fiduciary relationship between a director and a shareholder of a company in turn gives recognition to the separate legal personality of the company as distinct from its members. It is to be noted that this does not gives rise to a presumption that no fiduciary obligation at all existed. The relationship of that of a director and shareholder of a company is not a status based fiduciary relationship rather it is more fact based. In these cases where the courts recognized the existence of fiduciary duty on the part of the director towards the shareholders were that in these cases there were either few directors or few shareholders where sometimes shareholders were also directors or the companies were either companies carrying on family business or are private companies (Flannigan, cited in Nosworthy 2010). The court held that the typical characteristics of the fiduciary relationships are that the party under the obligation agrees to act in the interest of his counterpart which will affect the interest of the latter. This fiduciary relationship gives the party under the obligation pleasure to the disadvantage of the other person who is at a vulnerable position to be abused by the former (Hospital Products Limited v United States Surgical Corporation (1984) 64 HCA). In some cases the courts have laid down that a fiduciary relation between the director and the shareholders has arisen. Some of the cases are where a director buys the shares from the shareholders, or at the time of winding up of the company or where the share issue power has been used improperly (Flannigan, cited in Nosworthy 2010). The court held that in order to grant or reserve reasonable remedies, the significance of the commercial personality considerably reduces in two conditions, firstly, when the directors of the company deal with the shareholders for the buying or selling of the shares, chiefly in cases of direct dealings where the deal is not done anonymously on stock exchanges and secondly, when there are very few shareholders and directors and they have close relations. Here the intention of the judge may be criticized on two grounds. Firstly that the equitable doctrines and remedies operate irrespective of the corporate structure that has been given by the Corporations Act ((Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) ss 185 and 193). Secondly, the factors which have been given by the judge are irrelevant to the corporate structure as given under the Corporation Act. The view of the judge therefore can be criticized on the grounds that he has redefined the types of corporate structure as given under the Corporation Act in an inappropriate manner. The Corporations Act states that a proprietary company shall have only director and one member (Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) ss 114 and 201A(1)). Also the Companies Act demands the same requirement (Companies Act 1981 (Cth) s 219(1)). Further, the judge may also be criticized for suggesting that there is, on the basis of the number of directors and shareholders in the company, a sliding scale of commercial personality and the obligations that the officers owe to the company (Nosworthy 2010). The appellate court in the present case held that besides the general rule that a director of a company owes a fiduciary duty towards the company and not towards its shareholders, in cases involving direct interest of the shareholder precluding the interest of the company, the director owes a fiduciary obligation towards the shareholder. The court also held that it is the fiduciary duty of the director of a company towards its shareholders, while making any negotiations for the buying or selling of shares, to disclose all the facts to the shareholder which may affect his decision to buy or sell the shares. The general rule regarding the directors duty towards the shareholders of the company is that in the day-to-day business of the company the director of the company owes a fiduciary obligation towards the company alone. The basis behind forming this rule was that the directors would be put in an unfair position if they had to disclose confidential discussions to the shareholders of the company (Percival v Wright (1902) 401 Ch 2). The courts, in certain cases, have recognized some fiduciary obligations that a director of a company owes towards its shareholders. A possibility may exist that directors of a company who seek additional capital from their shareholders might have a fiduciary obligation towards its shareholders (Nocton v Ashburton (1914) 932 AC). In another case the court observed that the directors of the company selling the business owe an obligation towards their shareholders and a duty of not to deceive or mislead forms a part of such obligation. Further the court also accepted the fact that if a shareholder of such a company is misled to accept an offer, the co-shareholders may be prejudiced. Therefore if the minority shareholders are wrongfully forced to purchase as a consequence of a breach of obligation on behalf of the directors of a company, the former may make a complaint (Gething v Kilner (1972) 337 WLR 1). Here in the present case the defendant had a special knowledge which was acquired by him during the time when he was managing the company about a profitable sale of his business. This occasion was available particularly to the company although the deal was that of sale of its shares. The existence of a fiduciary obligation must be displayed by the existence of a relationship itself which includes the facts that the defendant was the only active director in the company, the plaintiff was the only other shareholder in the company, they had close familial relations, the interference of their mother- in-law to reconcile their issues and the privilege that the defendant had, due to his position, with regard to the sale of the business of the company to the third party. If any fiduciary obligation arises from the above mentioned facts, such obligation must be one that is imposed by law. The defendant has done no such thing which enable the court to assume that any fiduciary obligation existed on the part of the defendant. The judge was of the view that there was as no such relationship of fiduciary nature between the defendant and the plaintiff but the defendant was under an obligation to disclose to the plaintiff the facts of the offer of purchase of business made by the third party. It is to be noted that the court denied the existence of any such duty in the case of Percival v Wright and held that the case was totally different from the present one. If the judgment of Percival v Wright is not followed then it can be held that there was a fiduciary obligation on the part of the defendant towards the plaintiff. In the context of the present case a statement with regard to the duty of the defendant towards the company for the transactions between him and the plaintiff with respect to shares is of no sense. This duty does not carry any practical content and the company cannot undergo any kind of loss by the breach of such obligation. Where the director of the company owes a fiduciary obligation towards the company, the former does not holds a parallel or identical obligation towards the shareholders of the company regarding the same subject matter. But this must not exclude the existence of a fiduciary obligation on the part of the director of the company towards the shareholders with regard to the selling of shares in comparison to any obligation that such director owes towards the company. Many of the customary fiduciary relationships like that of a principal and an agent or that of a lawyer and his client are formed by the free will of the parties. In these relationships the party to whom the obligation is owed has the right to waive them whenever they want provided the contractual restraints are complied with. With regard to other relationships like that of a guardian and a ward or that of a parent and a child or that of a trustee and a beneficiary come into existence either under the process of law or by the act of others. These category of relationships is not formed by the free will of the parties neither the party to whom the other owes a fiduciary duty has right to terminate the same. Therefore the plaintiff, being a shareholder, in the instant case had no power or legal right to inspect the accounts of the company but he had right to ask for the copies of the accounts which he failed to exercise. The inspection could not have provided any suggestions with regard to the actual price of the shares. He had no right to be informed about the negotiations regarding the sale of the business of the company. The defendant who was the sole active director of the company is said to have acquired an advantageous position with respect to the plaintiff. He had liberty to disclose the facts about the undergoing negotiations regarding the sale of the business of the company to the plaintiff but was under no compulsion to do the same. Accordingly the defendant got into a position whereby he could practically affect the interest of the shareholder and with regard to the negotiations between them the defendant also got into a position disadvantageous to the plaintiff. The court also opined that as after 1983 the director failed to act in the interest of the shareholder while in the case of a proprietary company the director owes a fiduciary obligation towards the shareholders of the company. The director owes a fiduciary obligation towards its shareholders to promote the interest of the latter while making any negotiations regarding the takeover or acquisition of the company. Conflict arises where the parties keep their personal interest over their joint interest. A conflict could only arise if they prefer their personal interests over their joint interest. This conduct duty. The views of this case in a latter case where the court held that in a quasi- partnership where the status of the partners is dead- locked, the directors fall in a fiduciary relationship with one another as in the case of the company (Mesenberg v Cord Industrial Recruiters Pty Ltd (1996) 39 NSWLR 128) . Again in Hadid v Lenfest Communications the court interpreted the judgment of the instant case to mean that a legal duty to disclose certain facts is imposed upon the director to disclose the facts of 'dominating importance' only when the shareholder reasonably expects the same to be disclosed (Hadid v Lenfest Communications (1999) 1798 FCA). In a recent judgment the Chancery Division of the High Court of UK summarized that the directors owe a fiduciary obligation towards the shareholders of the company only in cases of special relationship. The judge referring the law of UK and that of overseas explained that the directors owe a fiduciary duty towards the company only (Sharp Others v Blank Others (2015) 3220 EWHC (Ch)). The judge held that although a director owes fiduciary duties towards the shareholders of the company, this obligation arises not because he is the director of the company but because there exist a special relationship between the director of the company and its shareholders. References Brunninghausen v Glavanics (1999) NSWCA. Companies Act 1981 (Cth). Corporations Act 2001 (Cth). Gething v Kilner (1972) WLR 1. Hadid v Lenfest Communications (1999) FCA. Hospital Products Limited v United States Surgical Corporation (1984) HCA. Mesenberg v Cord Industrial Recruiters Pty Ltd (1996) NSWLR 39. Nosworthy, B 2010, Directors ?duciary obligations: Is the shareholder an appropriate bene?ciary?, Australian Journal of Corporate Law, vol. 24, pp. 299-300. Nocton v Ashburton (1914) AC. Percival v Wright (1902) 2 (Ch). Sharp Others v Blank Others (2015) EWHC (Ch).
Thursday, April 23, 2020
Repeat After Me-The Taming Of The Shrew Repeat After Me As she screams at her father Katherine says What will you not suffer me? Nay now I see She is your treasure, she must have a husband; I must dance barefoot on her wedding day, And for your love to her lead apes in hell (Shakespeare 35). Katherine knows that her father favors Bianca because she is a goody two shoes of daughter. Kate expresses her feelings of having to be married off first because nobody in town wants her as a wife. Kate does not believe that she should be offered as a wife and then backed up with a dowry. She is quite opinionated about this, with no fear of who knows or not. Katherines views and beliefs of marriage and life set her apart from other women in Padua. Women, such as Bianca, simply go along with marriages and abide by what their husbands request. She is the one woman no man has been able to tame, and no man has wanted to. The town sees her as callous, sharp-tongued, and unmannerly, until Petruchio comes along to woo her. At the end of Shakespeares play The Taming of the Shrew it seems as though Petruchio has tamed Kate but in actuality she has simply learned to play his game and tell him what he wants to hear. After Kates father agrees to her marriage, Petruchio sets off to find Katherine and tell her the news. Upon finding her, they argue back and forth, teasing one another with playful words. This is where Petruchio decides he will make a decent wife out of Kate. He comes right out and tells her And bring you from a wild Kate to a Kate, conformable as other Kates(45). Petruchio believes that Kate will be tamed and will become the wife he wants through his loving guidance. The wedding day arrives but the groom does not. Petruchio is very late and this puts Kate in an awful mood. She rants on about the marriage as she awaits his arrival. Declaring herself Kate says: No shame but mine. I must, forsooth, be forced to give my hand opposed against my heart unto a mad-brained rudesby full of spleen, who wooed in haste and means to wed at leisure. I told you, I, he was a frantic fool . . . Now must the world point at poor Katherine and say, Lo, there is mad Petruchios wife, If it would please him come and marry her! (54) In this passage Katherine is first subjected to Petruchios plan for taming her. Angered by his actions she tells the townsfolk of her objection to this marriage. Kate believes that she should be in love with whom she wants to marry, but this is obviously not the case with Petruchio. She explains that he will make an awful husband due to his actions and his motive for even marrying her in the first place. She is embarrassed on her very own wedding day and is ashamed of Petruchio. After the wedding is over, Kate and Petruchio return to his home in the country. Petruchio begins to tell his servants all about his plan for Kate. He explains Another way I have to man my haggard, to make her come and know her keepers call: that is, to watch her, as we watch these kites that bate and beat and will not be obedient (70). Referring to Kate as a hawk that will obey its owners request, he knows that she will eventually obey his request just as the bird obeys. By keeping close watch over her actions Petruchio will have say on what she can or cannot do. This will teach her to become submissive to his every word. Kate is still disagreeable when Petruchio tells her of the trip to Padua for her sisters wedding. He warns her and says Look what I speak, or do, or think to do, you are still crossing it. -Sirs, lett alone. I will not go today, and ere I do it shall be what oclock I say it is (83). At this point Kate catches on to Petruchios plan and begins to play along with him.
Tuesday, March 17, 2020
Difficulties of communication within Jebel Ali Free Zone organization Introduction Communication is one of the most important elements in a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s operations. Through effective communication, a firm can establish a strong relationship with the various organizational stakeholders such as customers, suppliers, government, and employees amongst others (Griffin, 2011).Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Difficulties of communication within Jebel Ali Free Zone organization specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In the course of executing their duties, business executives experience communication problems, and thus they are concerned on how to understand better the various stakeholders especially the employees. Jackson (2006) is of the opinion that it is paramount for firmsÃ¢â¬â¢ management teams to overcome internal and external communication barriers. The communication interactions and approaches adopted by organizations directly influence the functioning of their departments and hence their overall business performance. This paper evaluates the case of Jebel Ali Free Zone in a bid to develop a better understanding of the communication difficulties experienced by organizations. The paper also evaluates a number of barriers and difficulties that the firm experiences in its communication processes. They include the existence of cultural barriers, lack of feedback, lack of clarity, system design faults, and lack of honesty and complexity of the organization. Finally, the paper proposes a number of solutions to deal with these problems. General information about Jebel Ali Free Zone Jebel Ali Free Zone (Jafza) was established in 1985. It is a member of the UAEÃ¢â¬â¢s Economic Zone World. In its operation, Jafza is committed at delivering optimal customer service. Its commitment to customer service enabled Jafza to attain ISO 9001: 2000 certification (Business Services, 2012, Para. 1). Since its establishment, the organization has undergone a significant transfo rmation. Currently it acts as a hub for over 6,700 companies, which are both domestic and foreign companies. The companies are from 150 different countries across the globe. The organization was founded on the premise of becoming an international business hub. Its establishment was also intended at providing its clients with an opportunity to access a wide range of valuable business features such as optimal location, effective and efficient infrastructure, and logistics. Over the years, the organization has become a key driver within the rapidly growing United Arabs Emirates economy (Business Services, 2012).Advertising Looking for research paper on business communication? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The organization is situated at Dubai, which serves as an optimal midway between various continents such as Africa, Europe, and Asia. Consequently, Jafza provides its clients with the opportunity to increase their cu stomer base. As an international business hub, Jafza enables businesses to access a customer base of over 2 million people. Jafza also acts as a gateway to other economies within the United Arabs Emirates, Middle East, and the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), which are less than 24 hours away. The zone is located between Al Maktoum International Airport, the largest container port, and Jebel Ali Port in Dubai, which ranks as the sixth biggest cargo port. Jafza is unique in that there is no other free zone that lies between two major logistic enablers. The organization also prides in a 6-lane highway, which facilitates transportation of custom bound goods between ports within 20 minutes. Establishment of an effective and efficient infrastructure is one of JafzaÃ¢â¬â¢s key strengths (Business Services, 2012). In a bid to increase its client base, Jafza has incorporated a number of commercial incentives such as full repatriation of capital and profit earned from the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s oper ations, zero income and corporate taxes for the duration of fifty years, 100 per cent foreign ownership and elimination of local labor restrictions for investors. Additionally, Jafza has also eliminated currency restrictions. The organization also provides diverse state-of-the-art facilities some of which include Light Industrial Unites (LIU), warehouse and showroom facilities, land, and office space. The purpose of establishing the light industrial units was to provide clients with an opportunity to store their light industrial products and undertake light assembling and production. The firm ensures that the LIUs are adequately supplied with sufficient power, which enables them to undertake their business operations smoothly. Other facilities that LIUs have include sufficient parking space and a container loading dock. Jafza has established eight blocks, which compose the 68 showroom-cum-warehouses to meet the needs of its clients. The rooms serve various purposes such as distribut ion, display, and storage. On the other hand, Jafza owns a sizeable plot of land, which is available for leasing. Management problem communication difficulties Jafza Jafza is cognizant of the importance of attaining operational efficiency. Consequently, the firm has established a number of departments, which include sales and marketing, property, civil engineering, and administrative services departments (Business Services, 2012, Para. 3). The departmentsÃ¢â¬â¢ operations aim at attaining one objective, which is to appraise the applications made by the various clients who intend to establish their operations in the Free Zone.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Difficulties of communication within Jebel Ali Free Zone organization specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Upon the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s approval, the departments provide additional vital services to clients. In spite of existence of goal congruence between th e various departments, their responsibilities differ. Successful communication forms the foundation of JafzaÃ¢â¬â¢s operations. However, in the course of its operation, Jafza faces a number of communication difficulties as discussed below. Cultural barriers Culture is one of the major issues that organizations have to take into account in the course of their operations (Krizan, 2011). However, companies that are involved in cross-border activities are the most affected by the existence of cross-border cultural differences. In its operation, Jafza has established itself as an international business hub. Consequently, the firm faces a number of cultural challenges. Jafza serves clients who are characterized by diverse language and cultural backgrounds. The cultural differences emanate from the fact that the clients come from different countries. Some of the major cultural differences that Jafza experiences are associated with differences in ethnicity, physical challenge, religion, l ifestyle, age, and gender. Consequently, the firm experiences a number of communication barriers. One of the main cultural barriers associates with cultural ethnocentrism and relativism. According to Krizan (2011), cultural relativism emanates from differences in values and behaviors amongst the parties involved. One of the standards of measuring cultural relativism is ethics such as what one culture considers being right or wrong. By developing such an approach, some of the Jafzas employees experience a challenge in the process of interpreting the intended meaning by the clients. On the other hand, the firm also experiences communication difficulties within its departments due to ethnocentrism. In a bid to develop a strong human resource base, Jafza has sourced its employees from different countries. However, some of the employees consider their culture as more superior compared to other cultures. As a result, this aspect leads to lack of effective collaboration between the firmÃ¢â ¬â¢s departments. Collaboration between departments in an organization is attainable by ensuring effective communication. Despite the existence of similarities between employee behaviors, their culture may be completely different, which leads to the formation of stereotypes and distrust amongst employees in various departments.Advertising Looking for research paper on business communication? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In its operation, Jafza experiences a major problem due to the existence of stereotypes within its departments, which fail to appreciate the importance of cultural diversity. Consequently, the firm suffers through reduction in the level of integration between departments. Additionally, some employees in Jafza departments consider their culture as superior to others. Consequently, they prefer working with employees of their cultural background compared to others. This aspect means that there is a substantial level of distrust amongst the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s employees. However, the success of Jafza is dependent on the operations of all the departments. Existence of communication difficulties due to cultural barriers is adversely affecting teamwork within the firm. Considering the fact that Jafza deals with a wide range of clients from different countries, the organization has to deal with the issue of cultural diversity. In an effort to deal with this challenge, Jafza has to train its workf orce continuously to manage the existing communication gaps effectively. One of the issues, which the firm has to focus on in its training process entails helping the employees to appreciate cultural diversity. Additionally, Jafza has to ensure that its employees in the various departments are bilingual (Hartley, Chatterton, Bruckmann, 2002). Lack of feedback For complete communication cycle, there has to be feedback from the intended recipient (Lunenburg Ornstein, 2008). The feedback enables the initiator of the communication process to determine whether the recipient has understood the intended message. Decoding the sent message is paramount in ensuring the implementation of the appropriate action. However, JafzaÃ¢â¬â¢s communication process faces a major challenge due to lack of feedback. One of the factors that lead to lack of feedback associates with ineffective collaboration between the various departments. In the course of executing their duties, the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s departm ents carry diverse responsibilities. For example, the sales and marketing department is charged with the responsibility of receiving, approving, and analyzing the applications made by clients. On the other hand, the civil engineering departmentÃ¢â¬â¢s responsibility entails analyzing the clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ projects. Therefore, operations of the two departments are interlinked. The civil engineering department cannot execute its duties if the sales and marketing department receives the applications and fail to communicate the same. Lack of clarity In a bid to attain the desired effectiveness in the communication process, it is paramount for the firmsÃ¢â¬â¢ management teams to ensure that the employees understand the intended message. However, there are some instances when the message is not adequately decoded (Lunenburg Ornstein, 2008). One of the reasons why the message may not be understood is associated with the fact that the employees might interpret the message differently. In the course of its operation, Jafza experiences a major challenge in communicating to the various departments, which arises from the fact that there are some instances when the message is not clear. This aspect forces the employees to act in a manner that is contradictory to the intended action. System design faults Considering the importance of communication within and across departments, most organizations are cognizant of the importance of implementing communication systems and structures. One of the communication systems that firms should implement relates to information communication system. In the course of its operation, Jafza has implemented an information communication system across all its departments. However, the communication system is not well configured to meet the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s communication needs. Consequently, Jafza has been experiencing a major challenge when communicating to its employees and clients (Means Rankin, 2010). The communication system entails relying on the clients and employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ personal emails IDs. This element presents a major challenge because the firm would not have managed to track the clients or employees in the event they left Jafza. Additionally, the firm also faced a challenge because most clients lost their email IDs. Consequently, Jafza suffered a major challenge with regard to implementing and maintaining an effective and reliable e-mail communication system especially with regard to its clients operating outside the free zone. Therefore, to improve the efficiency of its customer service delivery, Jafza needed an effective communication channel that would improve communication consistency. Lack of honesty Honesty is one of the indispensable elements of every successful business entity, and the lack of the same is a clear indication of an imminent failure. During difficult times such as recession, Jafza experiences a major challenge in its communication process. The challenge emanates from the fact that emplo yees may not be honest in their communication process. For example, during difficult times, the firm requires employees to give honest answers on some of the issues that the firm is facing. However, upon sensing the problems, the employees may fail to issue the intended information. Complexity of the organization According to Fielding (2006, p. 20), organizations experience a challenge due to the existence of numerous people to whom the message should be passed. Passing information to many individuals may result in the message being distorted due to extensive filtering and omission errors as the message is being passed on from one party to another. This phenomenon is very rife in Jafza due to the hierarchical organizational structure that the firm has adopted. In an effort to meet the customersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs, the firm has organized itself into a number of departments, which include sales and marketing department, administrative services department, civil engineering department, and the property department. The operations of every department are greatly dependent on other departments. As a result, the firm experiences communication breakdown due to the occurrence of distortions and omissions. Solutions to deal with the problem In order to continue with its high rate of growth, it is paramount for Jafza to deal with the communication difficulties experienced, and to achieve this objective, the firm should take into account a number of issues as outlined below. Incorporating an audience-centered approach Jafza should incorporate effective measures to deal with communication difficulties across and within departments arising from the existence of cultural differences. Firstly, the firm should stimulate the employees to appreciate the prevailing cultural diversity, and to achieve this goal, the firm should ensure that the employees understand each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural differences with regard to education, race, religion, status, gender. This move will play an im portant role in eliminating discrimination amongst employees. Thus, the firm will undertake effective communication. One of the ways through which this goal is attainable is by taking into account the message needs of the intended receiver. Fostering an open-communication environment Existence of restrictive environment is one of the reasons why organizations are not efficient in their communication process, and to deal with this challenge, Jafza should ensure that there is open communication. One of the ways through which the firm can achieve this aspect is by modifying the number of organizational level. For example, the firm can adopt a more flat organizational structure, which will lead to an improvement in the degree of interaction between the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s departments. Additionally, Jafza should ensure that it incorporates the concept of teamwork. The firm should assign some responsibilities to employees from various departments. This move will play an important role in improv ing the level of trust amongst employees, and thus there will be an increment in the rate of interaction amongst employees, hence improving communication (Fielding, 2006, p. 20). Incorporating ethical communication Jafza should ensure that it integrates ethical communication to improve the effectiveness and efficiency with which it delivers its customer service. The firm can achieve this goal by motivating employees to be transparent in their communication process. Therefore, they should desist from all deceptive tactics and issuing negative information. Improve the efficiency of the message Jafza is a very complex organization; therefore, it is important for the firm to ensure that it creates lean and efficient messages. In a bid to achieve this objective, the firm should motivate departments to report in a concise manner, for such a move will play an important role in preventing the audience from losing interest in reading the intended message. Additionally, incorporation of lean messages will tend to increase the level of concentration amongst the employees. By keeping the messages lean, the firm will avoid overloading its information communication network (Fielding, 2006, p. 20). Updating its communication infrastructure In an attempt to deal with the communication systems challenge, Jafza outsourced the services of FVC, a renowned value added distributor of Google Enterprise solutions in North Africa and the Middle East. The firm offers a wide range of e-mail solutions specifically the ready-to-use email solutions. In addition to being secure, the email solution provided by FVC is also compatible with that of Jafza and its clients. The technology utilizes GoogleÃ¢â¬â¢s cloud computing technology. Additionally, the technology can be implemented immediately and accommodate numerous users of information communication without undertaking major infrastructural changes. By outsourcing, the services of FVC, Jafza has been in a position to deal with the communi cation challenge it experienced due to system design defaults. One of the ways through which the firm has benefited is that it has customized its clients and employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ e-email addresses. Employees can use addresses such @jafzamail.com. Through this technology, the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s management team can communicate with its employees and clients. Additionally, the firm has continued to ensure that it maintains the integrity of the communication medium. One of the ways through which the firm has attained this aspect is by ensuring that there is a two-way communication amongst the firm, its clients, and employees. Implementation of technology has extensively benefited the firm. For example, its deployment is both quick and convenient. Additionally, the firm is not required to undertake extensive training in enabling the employees and clients to use the technology. Therefore, the firm has minimized the cost of implementing the new technology in addition to improving its communication effectiveness and efficiency. Conclusion This analysis underscores the importance of communication within an organization. However, firms experience numerous communication challenges in their operations. Due to its cross-border operations, Jafza experiences numerous cultural barriers in its communication process. These barriers emanate from the existence of cultural diversity amongst the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s employees, which is well illustrated by the fact that some employees consider their culture as more superior compared to that of their fellow colleagues. Consequently, stereotypes emerge within the organization. The cultural differences also lead to the emergence of an inefficient feedback mechanism due to language barriers, thus leading to lack of inter-departmental collaboration. Lack of collaboration has adverse effects on the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s operational efficiency. System default designs are another factor that had adversely affected the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s communication process. As a res ult, the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s management team could not stay in touch with the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s employees and its clients. Lack of honesty amongst its employees is another challenge that the firm experienced in its communication process. Some employees were not willing to give transparent information regarding the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s operations. In a bid to deal with the communication difficulties due to the system default design, Jafza has incorporated a new Google email solution. The new system has significantly improved the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s communication effectiveness and efficiency. In spite of this move, the firm should address a number of issues. Firstly, the firm should incorporate an audience-centered approach, which will improve its focus on the communication needs of the employees. It is also important for the firm to foster open communication in the firm by adopting a lean organization structure. This move will reduce the complexity associated with the reporting process. Fostering ethical c ommunication practices will also improve the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s communication efficiency. Additionally, the firm should continuously update its communication infrastructure Reference List Business Services. (2012). Jafza free zone. Web. Fielding, M. (2006). Effective communication in organizations: preparing messages thatÃ Communicate. Lansdowne, Cape Town: Juta Academics. Griffin, R. (2011). Management. Mason, OH: South Western Cengage Learning. Hartley, P., Chatterton, P., Bruckmann, C. (2002). Business communication; anÃ Introduction. New York, NY: Routledge. Jackson, J. (2006). The organization and its communication problems. Journal ofÃ Communication, 9(4), 158-167. Krizan, A. (2011). Business communication. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning. Lunenburg, F., Ornstein, A. (2008). Educational administration: concepts andÃ practices. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Means, T., Rankin, D. (2010). Business communication. Mason, OH: South Western Cengage Learning.
Sunday, March 1, 2020
Understanding Essay Titles Understanding Essay Titles Today, it is rare that you would be given ready made essay titles. Usually what you get is an essay question or a prompt. The main ingredient in a successful essay is understanding what you need to write about. Most essay questions contain four components: aspect, focus, instruction and subject. This formula works both ways, either you get a question which already contains these elements, or you get a paragraph of instructions and you have to come up with an essay title, based on them. Besides your topic, the title should convey the angle of your argument, context and what you need to do. In this post, you will find out about the types of essay titles and what you should do with them. Based on the instructional verb, we can identify 9 types of titles. Analyze You have to process related materials to find key evidence and important factors which influence the outcome. This means that you have to examine each piece of information you find and give the audience facts, instead of assumptions. Example: The Importance of Higher Education Compare and Contrast These two often come in couple, because it is obvious that you will compare two points or elements to find both their similarities and differences. You can also explain the significance of the matching or opposing features you have found. Example: Batman VS Superman: Do Only Gods Have Superpowers? Describe This one is probably the easiest to understand, as you only need to point out the state of things. No opinions or explanations are required. Your essay will be based on one of the five senses: what I see, what I smell, what I hear, what I taste, what I feel Example: A Day In the Life of a Blind Person Discuss If you get a discussion type of essay title, be prepared to choose a side. Identify the points of view on the subject, take one and argue for or against it using facts, examples and opposing views. Example: Photo Realism: Is It Necessary? Evaluate Put on the teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ shoes for a day. If you are asked to evaluate something, you will have to analyze the subject matter and identify its usefulness or insignificance. Example: The Issue of Using Electronic Device on the Road Examine Here, you will have to take the subject under a microscope and look into the smallest details. It may be applied to people, events, different phenomena, and other elements. Example: Examine the Methods of Preventing Water Pollution Explain This type of essay title usually begins with a how or a why. It means that the essay will either give instructions or expose an issue and make it clear why something is happening the way it does. Example: Obesity in the USA Justify These topics are usually controversial in the course of a global discussion. You will have to find clear evidence to support the argument, explain why the phenomenon that you are defending has a place to be. Example: Legalizing Abortions for Rape Victims All in all, our service is always available online to provide students with custom essay writing help at a reasonable cost.
Thursday, February 13, 2020
Discussion Board - Essay Example Internet has emerged as the conveyer of leadership, synchronizer of teamwork, and facilitator of communication. Rapid networking has integrated most of the managerial and communication processes in and around the organization. No doubt, Internet has thus expanded the scope of organizational behavior manifold. (Nelson and Quick, 2007) In this context, the example of ObWeb can be readily furnished, which is an entire website dedicated to the cause of organizational behavior. The website serves two main purposes: First, it helps thought sharing, communication, and research in the field of organizational behavior. Second, it strengthens the organizational behaviorist patterns of the academics and professionals by serving as an interactive social media platform. Hence, the web portal provides a forum for the members to ask questions, get answers, post announcements, and engage in a dialogue to address the issues related to organizational behavior. (Leana, 2010) Internet is perhaps one of the strongest tools of information technology (IT). Internet has enabled us to access huge amounts of data, communicate with each other across thousands of miles, and facilitate trans-platform integration of different technologies like email, ecommerce, etc. However, in regards of organizational behavior, the potential effects of IT and Internet are not uniformly positive. Organizations that rely on sophisticated information technologies are more vulnerable to vandalism, espionage, and sabotage. Moreover, IT can create new social divisions. For example, the computer savvy may be put vis-Ã -vis the nonuser and the educated may dominate the uneducated in newer ways. Faster ways to communicate through the Internet cannot substitute the critical human qualities like common sense and good judgment. Rather, too many channels of communication may lead to contradictions and confusion. Hence, advent of Internet has introduced new problems related to network